NUMBER 1 Question: Did you have a Engineer Design your Extractors or do you have a PEER REVIEW
YES - But is it accepted in your state. Currently WA and CO are the only states requiring this. We have recently acquired the services of a WA and CO approved engineer to Peer Review each or our current models as they are drawn.
If you currently have a Tamisium Extractor and need a review done on it you may be able to purchase a review from us for your Tamisium Extractor at a greatly discounted price. Please go to the Accessories Page to purcahse one and email us to make sure it will work for your system as it was drawn.
WHAT IS A PEER REVIEW?
A Peer Review is when a state approved engineer takes what anyone has drawn or mechanical drawings created by a engineer in another state and covers in detail what needs to be changed or modified for him to deem that system to be safe.
In some cases this has already been done in a different state but the endineering is not recognized by the new state. This can be costly for each state as the engineer and designer go back and forth making changes adding and taking away parts and construction methods if needed. This cost is usually passed on in the price of the system. We still allow you to purchase our systems with our without this review. In most states you dont need one.
Note that when a engineer has dissapproved a drawing, that part would then need to be modified to meet approval. In that case, a new set of approved parts would be drawn, approved and manufactured to replace the part that was dissapproved. Anyone who wants a approved system would need to update that part of their system by purchasing that approved part. During a review it is impossible to determine what that part may be until the review is complete.
Purchasing a peer review may not be the only purchase required to have a approved system.
In rare cases a drawing is approved that is submitted that needs not further updates.
All engineers are not licensed in all states and all states don’t accept allow out of state engineers approval. Colorado does not currently accept outside engineers which forces customers in that state to get a separate review done for each system if not included or purchased when bought. WA accepts the review done by Colorado State Licensed Engineers.
The engineer we have is licensed in Colorado and 8 other states.
In the case of new never before seen systems and designs, sometimes the calculations do not prove the tank can hold that pressure due to the complex geometry of the tank and the engineers ablity to extrapolate the data correctly. In those cases, a burst test can be performed to prove the tank can hold the pressures required. This is a costly process. In some of these cases, it is cheaper to just drop the old drawing and set out to provide a new approved drawing. However if thousands of parts are already manufactured a burst test would be the most practical next step. Of course if the test failed those parts would then need to be replaced.
Peer Reviews are currently being required by WA and CO and may be retroactive. They can be required by other states as well in the future. The reviews we offer here cover all systems currently made except the older smaller dome style systems which have not been reviewed yet.
This requirement is something that has just recently gained popularity as an effort to eliminate unsafe methods used. Even though 1000s of tamisium extractors are being used without incident this does not suffice as proof alone.
We agree with the requirement but not necessarily the method in which it is employed. The outrageous cost incurred due to one state not recognizing another state enineered drawings can remove a safe option from the public choice. In addition, engineers are still learning what is safe and what is not in the process I created and the many pirated systems coping it and are sometimes fooled into thinking that making a specific aspect safe will make the whole process safe in all the ways it can be used.
For example, our data shows that there is no totally safe way to use a pump to recover flammable solvents and that distillation is the only acceptable safe method especially considering the range of intellect that can purchase lab equipment. This will prove to be true and those systems will not be considered safe in the future but they are mistakenly being made safe now. Engineers will learn that a machine can be used safe until the manner in which it is used is pressed beyond it's limits. All mechanical systems will fail. PERIOD. It will be due to electrical or mechanical failure, overheating or damaged seals. A Recovery Machine used to remove small amounts of Refrigerant from AC systems is used ourdoors for a short time by design. Very few refrigerants are flammable. So yes it is safe but only because the refrigerant recovery machine can fail and when it fails in that environment would not impose a threat. Take it inside and use it hour after hour day after day and your asking for trouble when it is used with a pure flammable solvent under pressure instead of a non flammable refrigerant. All that have tried to do otherwise have failed including us. If it could have been done it would have been done 100 years ago. This is not new found technology. It is just being retried commercially at the publics expense.
Number 2 Question:
What separates your extractor from all the rest?
The things that set us apart from the rest are as follows.
- We place the column of plant material directly on top of the extractor tank where the extract ends up.
Doing this allows us to avoid using ball valves and lines to pass the extract through once it has contaminated the solvent. The only time the solvent passes back through a line or valve is when it is distilled and cleaned during recovery.
This eliminates the need to clean those lines and valves every time you change plant matter. Because we only have one inlet in the column on top and one outlet on bottom we can simply close the inlet and stop outflow using a vacuum created by any solvent attempting to flow out of the bottom of the column through the fine mesh filter placed in the bottom. We use this filter as a resistor or ball valve if you will. Using a fine or coarse filter can be used to control how much pressure or vacuum is required to go fast or slow when passing solvent through the plant matter.
- We use a loading ratio where a known sufficient amount of solvent passes through one time to extract everything from the plant possible based on temperature, time and polarity. Using density, temperature time and polarity to control what we extract out. Liquids we have discovered all need a 3:1 loading ratio but we use a 4:1 loading ratio to ensure you can add other solvents if needed and to ensure you still get a high yield if you go fast and cold.
- We use distillation because pumps are mechanical by nature and will fail and when they do you cannot predict what will fail and therefore if a solvent will be ignited or what catastrophe will happen from that failure By eliminating the pumps and building a more expensive efficient evaporator tank we evaporate fast enough that adding pump would be redundant. It may cost more but never fails and never needs to be repaired or replaced and NEVER will ignite the liquid solvent or vapors.
Pump systems have been around for decades. If a safe pump system could have been built it would have been built a long time ago by much more experienced people than the people pirating machines today. It is funny to watch them think they invented the wheel all over again but sad to see all these people burning down buildings and blowing up their friends and innocent employees that placed their trust in a ETL mark or some other misleading safety given to a machine and not a whole process.
- Because we don’t use a machine to vacuum solvent out and pump it into another tank we have more control on the temperature and time that solvent is in contact with the plant material. This allows us to create many extractions by avoiding or targeting specific compounds based on the solvents ability to dissolve more things out with time or melt things with time and temperature or avoid them by decreasing those parameters and restricting the effect of time and temp.
- Using distillation also allows us to add other solvents in with the butane and separate them during recovery. Using other solvents allows the extractor to dissolve more than just what butane would dissolve alone. This allows you to have a extractor working for you instead of you working for a single solvent.
There are two worlds meeting here. The art of running an extractor and the art of extracting. Both need to be fully capable and versatile and both need to be safe and run by a competent person and many solvents.
Plants produce many compounds of varying Polarities, Melting Points, Volatility and Viscosities. It would be wasteful and absurd to spend any time or money building or buying a machine that can only do one thing.
What we have here is a very controllable safe versatile extractor.
As a matter of fact until proven otherwise,,
It is The Highest Yielding, Most Efficient, Safest, Easiest to Operate Extractor available.
Can I use a Refrigerant Recovery Machine with a Tamisium Extractor?
Yes you can in any closed system but not recommended in any closed system.
Refrigerant Recovery Machines and Refrigerants sometimes
have, require or depend on lubricants or solvents to run and cool the machines
and this can cause problems that can lead to overheating and possible failure with catastrophic results.
For example if your machine requires that the refrigerant
contain some lubricant that will be provided to cool the
machine and it is not present in the solvent you are recovering though it.
Another thing I wanted to ad is that Tamisium used machines for our research
and development during the extraction and recovery phase for many years.
It was all the data collected that led to eliminating them completely.
We are very prejudiced against these machines. We built the tamisium
as a result of having one of these machines fail which led to a disastrous result.
Many failures preceded the one that led to the worst and last failure. The earlier
failures were more about quality concerns and just simple breakdowns that caused
some lost time or product.
You will not know what the break down will be or what it
will do until it happens. They are labor intensive, costly, high
maintenance, dangerous, produce lower quality extractions, remove
control from the process and are not designed for the application.
They are mechincal in design and fail by nature. period.
We never considered offering these dangerous uncontrollable
process to the public. It was not until I figured out that
I can design what I call the Tamisium Engine that I decided
that I can remove this machine from the process and make
a safe to sell apparatus to the public that outperforms in every way.
If you have a knock off or poorly designed tank I can assure
you that you are REQUIRED to use a recovery machine to use it.
Try using it without the machine. You will find that your
system runs slow if at all and is not very controllable.
To maximize the efficiency you have to pay close attention to
design in areas of evaporation, convection, flow, conduction,
surface area, wattage, loss, expansion, contraction, condensing
points, boiling points and conefficients of all these various factors
and how they interplay with each other over changing fields.
Anyone can build a tank that you can hook a vacuum pump to
but not everyone knows how to build a system that can run
with or without it.
A Tamisium can recover solvent just as fast or faster than someone
using a vacuum pump alone. We can do it safer, produce higher
quality product, cheaper and with less labor. Faster is not always
desired but is there if you want it.
Imagine this. If you opened a valve on a tank of butane
would you be able to stop the vapors inside from escaping.
Probably not. Then why would you think you need to vacuum
out what is already coming out with force.
Something to think about.
Pirated copies of the Tamisium sell Extractors that use
refrigerant recovery machines, not because they are faster,
but because their extractor would not run without them.
It is a poorly designed system that uses butane and requires
a machine to run it.
I can set up my machine, walk away and come back when it has
finished without any fear at all. As a matter of fact, my house could
burn down from a lightning strike and my extractor would be the only thing
standing AND I could still finish my recovery and remove my extract from
Can N Butane be used to extract from all plants?
Absolutely YES! IT is amazing to me when a person uses a solvent for a single plant and suddenly that solvent becomes plant specific. That is like asking if water can be used for anything other than making coffee or tea. A solvent dissolves molecules based on their like polarity. Water and Ethanol mix because they are both Polar. Wax, Oil and Algae Oil and Butane mix because they are all Non Polar. What makes a solvent preferred over another one is if you can easily remove it once it has been used to extract what you want out. No other solvent is so easy to remove and recover for reuse than butane. So it makes perfect sense if a solvent was going to be the leader in a new wave of extracting it would be N Butane or CO2. That does not mean that solvent can only be used for one purpose. Propane, IsoButane, Butane and CO2 are the preferred solvents used in the industry to extract pharmaceuticals, flavorings, cooking oils perfumes and fragrances from plants. The difference between Propane, CO2 and N Butane is that butane can easily and safely be recovered without a pump and is considered a more environmentally friendly solvent due to the low wattage consumed during converting from liquid to gas phase and back again and it does not impact the atmosphere.
Take Vetiver Root for example, Over 250 tons of vertiver oil is produced for the perfume industry every year. Over 90% of all fragrances contain vetiver oil for the base fragrance in mens cologne. The current process of steam distillation requires months of aging the oil to remove the by products created by using heat to produce the oil. With a Tamisium Butane Extractor you can eliminate the requirement of heat because Butane boils away at just over 32F. Many labs use our equipment to extract a variety of compounds from many plants. Our original research which led to the creation of the Tamisium Extractor was conducted with plants in the amazon that contained the highest polyphenol levels known to man and can easily be extracted by combining butane with another solvent so that a low pressure low temperature process can extract these products with no harm to the molecular structures.
Is a scale mandatory for this process?
A scale is absolutely mandatory when filling your tanks. You should always leave a 15-20% air space after filling with liquid solvent. Every tank has a maximum liquid capacity. This capacity should never be exceeded EVER. If a tank of any kind is overfilled and this airspace is removed the liquid will have nowhere to expand into as it expands and contracts with temperature changes. When liquid expands it can lift a house. It will rupture a tank if allowed to expand too much. To prevent overfilling a tank you must weigh the total liquid added. Weigh the liquid in grams and convert it to milliliters if needed by dividing the liquid N Butane Weight in grams by .577.
For example, the TE175 holds a maximum liquid volume of 700 ml at ROOM TEMP.
To figure out what this is in grams you multiply milliliters by .577 and you get 400 grams. 700 ml / 400 grams is the maximum safe liquid volume you can add to that tank.
To convert it back into milliliters you divide the gram weight by .577. It is that simple.
Never fill a tank to a milliliter volume line unless you do it at room temperature because temperature can change the volume line. Remember! liquid expands and contracts. Some more than others. Propane can expand 4 times or more than butane with the same temperature variation.
Always check your volume with gram weight. This always remains the same.
You can operate your system with less than the maximum but NEVER exceed it.
What types of products can you produce with this process?
Extracting is not magic. You are dissolving chemicals of various polarities with solvents of like polarities. You are using temperature to melt and make soluble or solidify wanted and unwanted components of the plant. And you allow time for this to occur to more or less of a degree. More time for what is working to work. Adding heat can speed up the process if you are not concerned with what heat may melt down and make soluble and easily extracted. The ability to control these adjustments from zero to maximum allows you to get everything out if you want or to restrict the process in multiple ways. This is what makes a extractor more or less valuable.
The ability of the extractor to be constrictive in one or all these adjustments is what separates a Tamisium from other extractors. Some always will require pressure or heat for example. To be able to extract with the least impact on the final product is golden. In other words, you want to be able to take out what is in the plant without changing it. Heat and Pressure are violent forces and are catalyst for molecular reaction and when combined with reactive compounds and reactive solvents can even create toxic by products or unwanted compounds. Butane is non reactive and we do not use enough heat and pressure to cause reactions anyway. It is a dream come true apparatus for those that know. And it is your only choice if you want it all. If you know you want High Pressure all the time, Go with CO2 but it will cost more. If you want heat all the time then go with a soxhlet, it will be cheaper but if you want to be able do it all, then you have to buy a Tamisium Extractor.
There are many non polar oils that are extracted from a plant when using the non polar solvent butane. Some are thin and some or thick to solid. And even insoluble products will come out if you melt them into a solution using heat and or use a like polarity solvent and enough time. Just by the force of pressure and flow speed you can extract less or more. Temperature and time controls how much and what you get out. If you extract them all out you would have a concrete. To get a solid from a mixture of these you would have to evaporate the thinner oils, separate, filter or avoid them during the extraction process by using various extraction techniques using your ability to control time, temp, pressure and solvent polarity. To target a limited number of them you would have an absolute. To target one or two you would have an essential oil or more pure oil. You can do it all, You just have to now what effects the outcome. It will be either solvent combination, time, temp, pressure, quality, density of your packed column or any combination of the 6. The key is to find out what targets what you want while not targeting what you dont want when you are after purity or an absolute or essential oil.
You can get anything out of the plant and in most cases you can control what you get out but the industry standard procedure for isolation is to prepare your extract after it has been extracted. Separating based on weight in a centrifuge machine and by polarity of compounds using a separatory funnel is the most common. But some people just evaprorate the products away with little regard to what is being lost. Refining it to look like what you want it to, after you get it out is the normal.It is remarkable to be able to do this during the extraction process but with a Tamisium, you can do this in most cases. Because it is easier to restrict the effects of these extraction parameters with this system. And if you want it all it is easy to max them out as well.
I am aware of extraction processes using a Tamisium that have produced a dry even hard paste but I can guarantee you that almost 50-80% of the products in the plant were left behind during the extraction or evaporated away afterwards while doing so is some cases. But you can be sure that if you are using a liquid you are getting a higher yield even then. It is good to know you can do anything you want and have the highest yield possible in any case.
If you have to add a solvent and you will have to evaporate that solvent away in the end you always have to be concerned with the boiling points of that solvent and the boiling points of the volatile oils you have extracted. So be aware of the fact that for a long time, some oils in plants have never been seen before until butane or CO2 extracted them out and left them behind. Adding another solvent may prevent that oil from appearing in your final product.
Can you sell extractors to Medical Facilities that deal with MJ Concentrates?
If the customer or potential customer indicates that the use of the extractor is going to be for the purpose of extracting a chemical that is controlled federally we will not sell a unit to them for that purpose. If that customer has already purchased an extractor and after the fact indicates the extractor will be used for this purpose we will be forced to void their warranty and cancel all support. The reason is there is no way to service a unit that has been tainted with a controlled substance that would prevent it from being shipped for repair. And to engage in guidance on the phone or via email may be interpreted as participation. To ensure I am here to help everyone and sell extractors I have no choice but to adopt this policy.
The fact that this unit can be used to extract any oil or chemical from any surface or porous material implies that you could use it for anything and are not limited to usage for one purpose. To limit yourself to one purpose that could eliminate any chance of obtaining an extractor is to close a door to any other opportunity the extractor could provide for you. It is up to you to follow the laws that govern the area where you live.
We are legitimate researchers at Tamisium and long before this MJ movement came to our attention we were well on the way to creating this product to extract from all plants. You can use Tamisium Extractors to extract estrogen from wheat, oil from algae or any other plant or seed, even oil from soil and any other chemical created by a plant or material. We cannot justify participating in a process that could destroy our future which would hurt everyone. Tamisium Extractors Inc has a large vested interest in producing extractors and extracts right here in Texas that are perfectly legal in Texas and the entire US.
Are there Mercaptans/Odorants present in N-Butane?
In the USA, detection of gas leaks by adding an odorant is typically required. When they are required the amount used should be detectable when the mixture of air and gas reaches 1/5 the lower combustible limit of the gas. Typically 1%. However you will find that most of the time, butane has no odorants added. You would be able to detect the odorants by the odor obviously and also by the spec sheet supplied by the supplier. There are lab grades of butane available with N-Butane supplied in a 99.9% purity and absolutely no odorants added at all. Fear of mercaptan ingestion is not of concern when pure butane is available.
As a matter of personal observation, I have never seen any butane with any Mercaptans added. This includes disposable canisters and commercial size tanks. I think this is because butane is NOT the best choice of fuel due to it's low condensing temperature.
How efficient is butane as a solvent?
After we built our first original 5 lb prototype, before placing any plant material inside the unit, we performed an extraction to clean it out .. Using 99.5% pure butane during the extraction process, we extracted over 20 grams of oil from the pores of the the stainless steel extractor alone in a 5 gallon column. We cleaned all the parts first. You can expect as high as 99% of the oil to be extracted from a plant or seed or any other material for that matter.
Due to the ability to adjust the major extraction parameters Q.D.T.P.T.P. or Quality of Material, Density of the material, Time soaked in Solvent, Pressure, Temperature and Polarity of the solvent/s. You can extract out a more pure product than before or extract full spectrum or anywhere in between. If you give the parameters values of only 10 each, meaning 10 different pressures, 10 different soak times etc., you have the ability to create 999,999 varieties of products.
Can the Recovery time of Butane be Decreased?
YES. There are many techniques to rapidly recover (Evaporate and Condense) solvents including butane. However it is important to understand that increasing the rate of evaporation can greatly reduce the quality and yield of your finished product when volatile oils are being extracted out. Using butane allows you to extract and capture very volatile oils that would be lost if any other solvent were used that had higher evaporation temps than butane. This is because butane boils or evaporates at a lower temperature than anything you would be extracting out and any other recoverable solvent you could use. Using solvents with higher boiling points that more closely match your extracted components would require you to boil those extracted components away when you boil your solvents away after using them to extract with. To raise this temperature or boil faster than you need to, would defeat the purpose of using butane. It does not matter if you use heat or vacuum to boil a solvent. Boiling or creating a pressure differential greater than required to boil butane, could cause extracted components to boil away as well. In addition, as the extracted components become more viscous, bubbles will start to form and may become large enough to enter into your upper valves if the evaporation process is too fast. If this happens you could be required to disassemble your fittings for cleaning.
We paid careful attention to the design to ensure that any food product never enters into a line, ball valve or safety qd.
Soxhlet Extractions. How do they compare to Tamisium Extractors?
When using a sohxlet extractor you use a lot of heat and are limited to less volatile open system solvents that remain a liquid at room temp. When you do boil them to operate the apparatus you must use enough heat to boil the solvent at atmospheric pressure. This heat creates a wide band of extraction efficiency on a polarity scale. Meaning it even dissolves and extracts things that are not closely matching the polarity of the solvent. It just melts them out. The heat is bad and the ability to target a specific target is gone. Great Heat creates more efficiency but with a price. Heat can be a catalyst for molecular changes that may not be desired. With a Tamisium Extractor, you can use heat or you can elect not to. It is kind of like having a car that can go forward and in reverse.
Every extraction method has some limitation, you have to use pressure, you have to use heat, and so on. Now you can decide what you need and adjust accordingly
Is a Tamisium Extractor dangerous?
Yes. for two reasons.
1. Any flammable solvent extractor is potentially dangerous and most solvents are flammable. No matter if it is boiling acetone and alcohol used in a soxhlet extractor with a heat source or butane in a cold Tamisium Extractor or a typical fuel pump extracting gas at any gas station, there are rules that we must follow. Laboratory safety precautions are the same with this extractor as with most others. The key point to note is that the Tamisium Extractors Inc. are totally closed systems. The butane is never exposed to the air during the normal extraction or the normal recovery process and it is recovered for reuse without a heat ignition source. The apparatus is a closed system and as long as the system is closed, you should not have any issues to deal with. When the valves are opened, there is a safety Quick Disconnect that continues to seal the unit if a line or tank is not connected to receive the solvent. Due to the fact that no pumps or heat is needed to extract or recover the solvent, you will not have to deal with boiling solvent fumes and sparks or flames to ignite a solvent if an accident should occur. The manual is very descriptive and is almost a book guide into a new area of extraction. A mini course in itself. It is a subject that we all have to learn to use just like any upgrade in technology.
2. Hydraulically Filling a Tank leaving no air space inside when using a liquid solvent or worse a heated solvent in a closed system is a dangerous thing to do. The fact that the system is closed means that the liquid inside will have no place to expand into when the liquid expands. Liquids are very powerful and do not compress. So when they expand they can lift cars and even houses. A tank is no match for the power of expanding liquid. We are not talking about air or vapor pressure. If you remove the air or OVER FILL the tank with too much liquid a dangerous result can happen. It is a simple thing to prevent. Simply know the weight of the correct volume of solvent and use a scale to fill your tank. Making sure to never exceed the safe maximum liquid volume or any tank and use weight to measure the safe operating volume.
It is very important to read the manual and follow all safety precautions regarding ignition sources and filling your tanks correctly. A pressure inside a tank is invisible and only makes itself known when it is too late. When using butane, a 15-20% air space should be enough for normal operation with normal temperatures. I do not use high heat and have not designed this system to operate at any temperature above 110F. 110F will dissolve almost anything you would want to get out. If the heat is too low you can add a little more time to the process and accomplish the same thing, even better because heat can break chemical structures down. This is why a cold process is choice number one when time and components extracted permit.
Hydraulically filling a tank is normally the safe way to test the limits of a tank but when you are using a pressurized liquid flammable solvent as your liquid to hydraulically fill it with instead of water, you are asking for trouble when the tank ruptures. Normally water just pours out the crack because it does not compress and therefore the pressure is relieved instantly once the tank ruptures. Then the water just pours out. But with butane the solvent will keep coming out with 25 psi pushing it or more if heat caused it to expand and increase the pressure. Even then you may be ok if the butane does not have a way to ignite. Cover all your bases. Remember accidents happen accidentally because people get comfortable and start ignoring the safety rules.
Do I need a permit to operate a laboratory or Tamisium Extractor?
I am not required to submit records for purchases in any State nor is the Tamisium controlled in Texas as is other laboratory apparatus. It is up to the end consumer to obtain the proper licenses and permits in the state or country they reside in. Contact your local Dept of Public Safety or your State Health and Safety agency for more information. In Texas contact 512-424-2481 and ask for Jeanne Malone. You will be pleasantly surprised at how very helpful and encouraging Jeanne Malone and the State of Texas can be in helping you get a proper permit. I am sure the same goes for any State Agency.
Is Butane safe to use for consumable products?
Acute Toxicity Level
Non Toxic: inhalation.
Absolutely. Butane is non toxic and evaporates completely.
It is used as a propellant in non stick cooking sprays because it mixes with the oils and carries them out of the canister better than other propellants, and it evaporates easily leaving a non toxic fume in the air that quickly dissipates away. When used as a propellant, as much as 25% of the volume of the canisters is filled with butane. It has been used for over 100 years to extract out topicals and consumables for exactly that reason. For decades, butane has been used to not only manufacture, flavorings, fragrances, and food additives but it has been used to deliver those food direct to your kitchen skillet. You can use it to extract topical and internal medicine, perfumes and oils. Especially oils. It is the holy grail of organic solvents and really shines with aromatic fragrances and oils, especially volatile oils/essential oils. Butane is the only solvent that will extract the aromatic and total essence of some flowers such as lily of the Nile.
None of this product's components are listed by ACGIH, IARC, NTP, DFG or OSHA.
Is Butane State or Federally Regulated?
U.S. Federal Regulations
None of this products components are listed under SARA Section 302 (40 CFR 355 Appendix A), SARA Section 311/312 (40 CFR 370.21), SARA Section 313 (40 CFR 372.65), CERCLA (40 CFR 302.4), TSCA 12(b), or require an OSHA process safety plan.
U.S. State Regulations
The following components appear on one or more of the following state hazardous substances lists:
Is Butane harmful or toxic?
Due to the fact that butane would rapidly evaporate after being ingested, inhaling it or drinking should be considered lethal. However you may find it hard to ingest because it would be freezing everything it touches due to its rapid evaporation. Inhalation of any concentrated gas alone without oxygen could be potentially fatal. Butane can displace air/oxygen just like CO2 and that could cause asphyxiation. Breathe a mixture of natural inert air gases, not concentrated gases is a good rule of thumb. MSDS N-Butane full spec sheet. NFPA ratings give Butane a rating of 2 for Health, 4 for Fire and 0 for reactivity.
Butane is non toxic and evaporates completely after extraction. It boils at 32 degrees F and will rapidly evaporate after being exposed to 80F room temperature. If you get any on your skin or face you should wash it out immediately to be safe. You may not notice any burning or anything but it is better to be safe than sorry. I have had butane on my skin and my face and in my eyes and if I did not know it was butane, I would have thought I was sprayed with very cold water. However, we all can react differently. So always use eye protection when using anything under pressure or potentially dangerous.
What is the polarity of butane?
Butane (C4H10) has no polar groups and no isomers.
Butane is NON POLAR all the way, which means you can use Butane as the only solvent if the chemical you want to extract is non polar as well. If not, then you will have to add another solvent to the butane before extracting. Amazingly enough, those solvent will mix with butane to perform the extraction and separate during the recovery of the butane. Solvent amounts added are determined by the saturation level of a particular plant component in a given solvent. Butane is composed only of carbon and hydrogen. It is non-polar. It has no net ionic charge. Polar molecules can dissolve polar molecules and non-polar molecules can dissolve non-polar molecules. The closer you can get the polarity to match up, the more efficient the extraction process will be.
Is Butane the only solvent needed for a complete extraction?
Sometimes, to perform a complete extraction of an herb or plant that contains components that are not polarity matched to butane, you will need a small amount of one or more other solvents such as ethanol/alcohol or acetone. This is to be added to the butane before you begin the extraction process. This is the remarkable feature of using butane in the Tamisium Extractor. Because you can add these other solvents in a variety of combination's. The components you can extract from plants is virtually unlimited. And you can extract several chemicals from the same plant in one extraction or isolate the extraction to one chemical in most cases.
How do you know which solvents to use if butane is not the one required?
Solvent choice is determined by two factors.
Chemical Saturation Point, of a chemical in a given solvent, and Chemical Polarity Matching of the solvent to the chemical being extracted.
Chemical Saturation point is the point at which a solvent will no longer dissolve a chemical.
You will need to know how much chemical resides in the plant you are extracting from and you will need to know how much solvent is required to dissolve all that chemical to extract it from the plant.
Solvent Chemical Polarity matching is something you will just have to figure out with each plant component you extract from. Most of the information is known already. You can look in an index or reference source such as a Merck index or type in polarity and name of chemical on the internet and find it there. You can also determine from more more mainstream extractions what is currently being used.
Why is Butane considered such a great solvent over other solvents such as CO2?
You do not need high volumes of solvents to extract when using butane as the Primary Extracting Solvent because it condenses into a liquid at very low pressures and is very effective at extracting oils due to the being a very Non Polar Linear Molecule. Other solvents such as CO2 require a minimum of 800 psi to begin assuming any efficiency at all. Going as high as 10,000 psi in some extracting processes. The less dense forming gas of CO2 requires much more volume in the containers holding it and the containers must be very heavily constructed to hold the high pressures required to condense it into a liquid which limits the volume of material one can extract from. Requiring great expense in manufacturing and use to build any size machine. It also requires expensive pumps and much experience and labor to perform an extraction. This type of labor is costly. The major drawback to using CO2 is dangerous high pressures, cost of operation and cost of equipment. Making products with CO2 therefore cost much more and the final product price must be higher. Higher prices do not denote higher quality as a rule anymore. Until butane, those higher prices had to be paid. Now a lower cost alternative can produce a higher quality product making some products more profitable and within reach of consumers.
When Butane is used as the primary solvent, such as is the case in most oil extractions, the extraction process really works well due to the fact that you are sending almost 4 volumes of a very effective LIQUID Butane through the plant material when only a 1/2 of a volume would be more than enough to dissolve all the oil contained in that volume of plant material.
This allows for an extremely efficient extraction.
During testing, I have extracted as little as 2% more oil when making a second pass with clean recovered solvent, extracting from the same extracted plant material which means that 98% was extracted out the first time.
But most important is the fact that Butane boils at 32 degrees Fahrenheit, it is non toxic and evaporates completely with minimal effort and can be manipulated from a gas to a liquid at very low temperatures and pressures. The other primary solvent added if any, as well as the extracted out chemicals, boil at much higher temperatures and will not evaporate with the butane. This allows you to separate the several chemicals very easily and without the use of expensive equipment which is what makes using BUTANE as a primary extracting solvent so incredible. The fact that you can add other solvent to Butane to extract out everything from a plant is the icing on the cake.
In oil extractions when using butane, how can I get all the butane out as the oil thickens.
There should be no butane in the extract if you recovered the butane properly. Adding a transport solvent before beginning extraction, should assist in the recovery of all the butane because it changes the viscosity of the oil extracted and allows the molecules of butane to leave more easily while warmed during the recovery process. Adding a Transport Solvent should be all that is needed to remove any butane should any be left behind after recovery of the butane solvent. A Rotary Evaporator is another common tool in use. You can use your freezing Recovery Tank as the vacuum needed so that any butane evaporated away while using the RE, can be saved.
Having butane remain in the extract is no problem in regards to toxicity. We actually use Butane as our transport solvent. You have to freeze all containers and tanks before opening and transporting butane in this way. But when you do, you can deal with it as any other liquid not under pressure. Dropping the temperature of Butane below 32F reduces the relative pressure to zero. This is the reason butane alone does not work well as a gas cooking fuel or lighter fuel.
Remember that Butane is added as a propellant to spray cooking oils.
Warming the extract up is another alternative. It will not need to be warmed more than 110F. Never use an open flame or heating element. Immerse the holding tank in warmed or cool water to warm the solvent above freezing or use a heating plate with a spacer and check the temperature with a laser thermometer. Only evaporate flammable solvent in a well ventilated area. The problem with open evaporation is frost tends to leave water deposits in the extract.
Another way is to add warm water to the oil and mix thoroughly. After the warm water has evaporated the butane you can then separate them into layers and drain the bottom layer and discard. If you have extracted out polar compounds they will be lost in the water layer.
As more question come in, more questions and answers will be posted.